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KLIMT E L’ORO DI BISANZIO

klimt-bacio

La storia dell’arte è piena di viaggi di formazione più o meno celebri: uno su tutti, quello di Brunelleschi e Donatello a Roma nel 1402. Vasari racconta che Brunelleschi, una volta arrivato a Roma,  “vedendo la grandezza degli edifizii e la perfezzione de’ corpi de’ tempii, st[esse] astratto: che pareva fuori di sé”. Si dice che quel viaggio sia stato il momento in cui i due artisti fiorentini poterono immergersi nella grandezza dell’arte classica, appropriarsi del suo linguaggio e riproporlo nel nuovo contesto che stava nascendo.

Anche Klimt si recò a studiare l’arte del passato: nel 1903, egli compì ben due viaggi a Ravenna, dove potè studiare gli stupendi mosaici bizantini della Basilica di San Vitale. Il confronto con lo sfarzo di questa arte, fu per lui molto fecondo, se è vero che grazie a esso egli potè inaugurare una nuove fase della sua carriera: il cosiddetto periodo “aureo”. Ormai prossimo ai quarant’anni, l’artista viennese, recuperò le dorate suggestioni dei mosaici ravennati immaginando un nuovo modo di rappresentare la realtà, modulando le parti piatte e plastiche con passaggi tonali, dall’opaco al brillante. Dai mosaici di San Vitale, egli mutuò anche la bidimensionalità dello stile, che seppe arricchire dando maggiore risalto al linearismo e alle campiture.

È il dominio dell’oro che contraddistingue le tele del cosiddetto «periodo aureo» di Klimt, durante il quale nacquero alcuni dei capolavori klimtiani più celebri: Giuditta I (1901), il Ritratto di Adele Bloch Bauer I (1907) e Il bacio (1907-08), tutte opere dove il grande pittore austriaco si presenta convertito all’oro di Bisanzio.

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